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C&D Debris State Resources

Construction and demolition (C&D) debris refers to materials produced in the process of construction, renovation and/or demolition of structures, where structures include buildings (residential, commercial, institutional), roads, and bridges. Depending on your state’s definition, C&D debris typically include concrete, asphalt, wood, gypsum wallboard, paper, glass, rubble, and roofing materials. Land clearing debris, such as stumps, rocks, and dirt are also included in some state definitions. In most cases C&D debris is nonhazardous and is regulated by states and local governments rather than by EPA. An exception would be where C&D debris contains hazardous waste, such as removed asbestos insulation. For information on hazardous waste regulations, see: http://www.cicacenter.org/hazwaste.html.

C&D debris is a significant issue in the U.S. because of the enormous volume of C&D debris generated. A large fraction of C&D debris ends up in municipal solid waste landfills or in special C&D landfills, which may have the potential to contaminate groundwater. Also, each year, there is less land available for waste disposal. As a result, many state and local governments are seeking ways to divert C&D debris from land disposal, including the promotion of recycling. Also, Green Building programs exist where the focus is on minimizing the generation of wastes.

State and local regulations may limit where you can dispose of C&D debris. For example some local governments do not permit C&D debris to be disposed of in their municipal landfill. Also, some local governments, particularly in California, require construction companies to recycle a minimum percentage of the C&D debris generated.

Use this tool to locate regulatory information and other compliance assistance and P2 resources for your state. It is also recommended that you contact your city or county government to determine if local rules also apply to your project.


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